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Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (d.620H)

His name and lineage :

He was Muwaffiq-ud-Deen Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Qudaamah bin Miqdaam bin Nasr bin ‘Abdillaah Al-Maqdisee, who later became Ad-Dimashqee, As-Saalihee.

His Birth :

He was born in the month of Sha’ban in 541H in a small town of Jamma’eel in Palestine.

His Early Life and Travels :

He entered the city of Damascus with his family when he was ten years old. There, he memorized the Qur’aan, as well as the abridged form of Al-Kharqee (a Hanbalee book of fiqh).

He and his cousin, the Haafidh ‘Abd-ul-Ghanee Al-Maqdisee (rahimahullaah), traveled to Baghdad in 561H, where they heard much from many scholars that were present there.

He acquired so much knowledge and understanding of the Religion that he surpassed the companions of his study gatherings, showing an extraordinary ability. Thus, the knowledge of the (Hanbalee) madh-hab and its principles fell upon his shoulders.

His Piety and Abstinence :

He was pious, abstentious of the worldly life and consciously submissive to Allaah. He held revereance and prestige. He had leniency and tolerance and all of his time was spent absorbed with seeking knowledge and implementing action. He would counter false disputing with solid arguments and concrete evidences. And he would not become enraged and aroused, while on the other hand his opponents would scream and become furious with anger.

His Teachers :

Shaikh Ibn Qudaamah (rahimahullaah) acquired knowledge from a vast amount of scholars of his time. The most famous among them were Taqee ud-Deen Abu Muhammad ‘Abd-ul-Ghanee Al-Maqdisee (d. 612H) and the Faqeeh of Iraq, the counselor to Islaam, Abul-Fath Nasr Ibn Fatyaan, better known as Ibn Al-Mannee.

His Students :

He had many students, the most famous of whom were Shihaab-ud-Deen Abu Shaamah Al-Maqdisee (d. 665H) and the Haafidh Zakee-ud-Deen Abu Muhammad Al-Mundhiree (d. 656H), as welll as other.

The Statements of the Scholars about him :

Abu ‘Amr Ibn as-Salaah (rahimahullaah) said : “I have not seen the likes of Shaikh Al-Muwaffaq.”

Ibn Taimiyyah (rahimahullaah) said: “No one possessing more understanding of the Religion entered Shaam, after Al-Awzaa’ee, other Shaikh Al-Muwaffaq.”

Al-Mundhiree (rahimahullaah) said: “He was the Faqeeh, the Imaam. He narrated hadeeth in Damascus, issued legal rulings (fataawaa) and taught classes. He authored many books, both short and long, on the subject of Fiqh, as well as other subjects.”

Adh-Dhahabee (rahimahullaah) said: “He was one of the eminent Imaams and an author of many books.”

Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said: “He was the Shaikh-ul-Islaam, an Imaam, a scholar, outstandingly proficient. There was not found in his era nor before it by a long span of time, anyone possessing more (understanding of) Fiqh than him.”

His written works :

The written works of Imaam Al-Muwaffaq are many and they reach the level of the excellence of scholars. Ibn Rajab (rahimahullaah) said: “Shaikh Al-Muwaffaq has authored many excellent books on the (Hanbalee) madh-hab, both on fundamental (Usool) as well as subsidiary issues (Furoo’), on Hadeeth, the (Arabic) language, Zuhd (Abstinence) and Raqaa’iq (heart-softening material). His books on the subject of Usool-ud-Deen reach a level of high-quality. Many of them were written according to the way of the hadeeth scholars, thus they are loaded with ahadeeth of the Prophet, reports of the Salaf and chains of narration. This was the methodology employed by Imaam Ahmad as well as other hadeeth scholars.”

From these books are the following :

On Fiqh:Al-Mughnee (in 10 volumes), Al-Kaafee (in 4 volumes), Al-’Uddah, Al-’Umdah, Al-Muqn’a

On ‘Aqeedah:Lum’at ul-’Itiqaad, Al-Qadar, Dhamm-ut-Ta’weel

On Usool-ul-Fiqh:Rawdat-un-Naadhir

On Raqaa’iq and Zuhd: Al-Riqqah wal-Bukaa, At-Tawwaabeen

On Hadeeth: Mukhtasar ‘Ilal-ul-Hadeeth Lil-Khilaal

He has authored other books as well, which are now between the stages of print and manuscript. We ask Allaah that He enable us to see this light of guidance at a near time.

Imaam Ibn Qudaamah passed away in 620H, may Allaah have mercy on him.

[Source: the chapter, A Brief Biography of Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee from the book The Explanation of Sufficiency in Creed by Imaam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee with explanation and commentary by Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih al-'Uthaimeen, Al-Manhaj Publishing]

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