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Marry after fornication: rulings

 بسم الله و الحمد لله ، والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله ، وعلى آله وصحبه ومن تولاه وبعد 
Marry after fornication: rulings

The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked: 

A man committed zina with a virgin and wants to marry her. Is it permissible for him to do that? 

They replied: 

If the matter is as described, each of them must repent to Allaah and give up this sin, and regret what has happened of immoral actions, and resolve not to do it again, and do a lot of good deeds, in the hope that Allaah will accept their repentance and turn their bad deeds into good. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 

“And those who invoke not any other ilaah (god) along with Allaah, nor kill such person as Allaah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse ___ and whoever does this shall receive the punishment.

69. The torment will be doubled to him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein in disgrace;

70. Except those who repent and believe (in Islamic Monotheism), and do righteous deeds; for those, Allaah will change their sins into good deeds, and Allaah is Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful

71. And whosoever repents and does righteous good deeds; then verily, he repents towards Allaah with true repentance”

[al-Furqaan 25:68-70] 

If he wants to marry her, then he must wait for one menstrual cycle to establish whether her womb is empty before doing the marriage contract with her. If it turns out that she is pregnant, then it is not permissible for him to do the marriage contract with her until after she gives birth, in accordance with the hadeeth in which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade a man to water the crop of another with his own water. 

Fataawa Islamiyyah (3/247). 

وسئل علماء اللجنة الدائمة : 
زنى رجل ببكرٍ ويريد أن يتزوجها فهل يجوز له ذلك ؟ 
فأجابوا : 
" إذا كان الواقع كما ذكر : وجب على كلٍّ منهما أن يتوب إلى الله فيقلع عن هذه الجريمة ، ويندم على ما حصل منه من فعل الفاحشة ، ويعزم على ألا يعود إليها ، ويكثر من الأعمال الصالحة ، عسى الله أن يتوب عليه ويبدل سيئائه حسنات ، قال الله تعالى : ( وَالَّذِينَ لا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهاً آخَرَ وَلا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلا يَزْنُونَ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثَاماً . يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَاناً . إِلَّا مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً فَأُولَئِكَ يُبَدِّلُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ حَسَنَاتٍ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَحِيماً . وَمَنْ تَابَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحاً فَإِنَّهُ يَتُوبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَتَاباً ) الفرقان/68 – 71 . وإذا أراد أن يتزوجها : وجب عليه أن يستبرئها بحيضة قبل أن يعقد عليها النكاح ، وإن تبين حملها : لم يجز له العقد عليها إلا بعد أن تضع حملها ، عملاً بحديث نهي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يسقي الإنسان ماءه زرع غيره " " فتاوى إسلامية " ( 3 / 247 ) .

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said in ash-Sharh al-Mumti‘ (13/382): Rather the opinion narrated from Abu Bakr and a number of the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) is that there is no ‘iddah at all for the woman who committed zina, and there is no requirement to establish that there is no pregnancy, especially if she has a husband, because of the words of the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “The infant is to be attributed to the husband of the woman (who gave birth to him).” Rather if a man knows that his wife has committed zina – Allah forbid – and has repented, he should have intercourse with her immediately, so that no doubt will remain in his heart in the future as to whether she became pregnant as a result of zina or not. If he has intercourse with her immediately, the child will be assumed to be from the husband and not from the zaani (adulterer). 

But if the woman who committed zina (fornication) did not have a husband, it is essential to establish that there is no pregnancy by waiting for one menstrual cycle, according to the correct opinion.

الشيخ ابن عثيمين رحمه الله : " بل إن القول المروي عن أبي بكر وجماعة من الصحابة قالرضي الله عنهم أن المزني بها لا عدة عليها إطلاقاً ولا تستبرئ ، لا سيما إذا كانت ذات زوج ؛ لقول الرسول عليه الصلاة السلام: (الولد للفراش) ، بل ينبغي للإنسان إذا علم أن زوجته زنت - والعياذ بالله - وتابت أن يجامعها في الحال ، حتى لا يبقى في قلبه شك في المستقبل ، هل حملت من جماع الزنا أو لم تحمل ؟ فإذا جامعها في الحال حُمِلَ الولد على أنه للزوج ، وليس للزاني . 
أما إذا كانت المرأة الزانية ليس لها زوج فلا بد أن تستبرئ بحيضة على القول الراجح “

"الشرح الممتع" (13/382


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: 

Marriage to a zaaniyah (a woman who has committed fornication) is haraam until she repents, whether the one who committed zina with her is the bridegroom himself or someone else. This is the correct opinion beyond a doubt, and it is the opinion of a number of the earlier and later scholars, including Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others. Many of the earlier and later scholars were of the view that it is permissible, and this is the view of the three, but Maalik stipulated that it should be established that there is no pregnancy by waiting for one menstrual cycle, and Abu Haneefah regarded it as permissible to do the marriage contract before waiting for one menstrual cycle if she is pregnant, however if she is pregnant it is not permissible to have intercourse with her until she gives birth. Ash-Shaafa‘i regarded it as permissible to do the marriage contract and to have intercourse in all cases, because the water (semen) of the zaani has no value in sharee‘ah and the ruling is that no child is to be attributed to him. This is his justification for his opinion. Abu Haneefah differentiated between the one who is pregnant and the one who is not, because if (the husband) has intercourse with the one who is pregnant, he will be attributing to himself a child who definitely is not his, which is different from the case of one who is not pregnant. Maalik and Ahmad stipulated that it should be established that there is no pregnancy (by waiting for one menstrual cycle), which is the correct view. But Maalik and Ahmad, according to another report, stipulated that it should be established that there is no pregnancy by waiting for one menstrual cycle. The other report from Ahmad is that which is followed by many of his companions such as al-Qaadi Abu Ya‘la and his followers, which is that it is essential to wait for three menstrual cycles. However the correct view is that all that is required is to establish that there is no pregnancy (by waiting for one menstrual cycle). 

Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 32/110 

قال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه الله :

" نِكَاحُ الزَّانِيَةِ حَرَامٌ حَتَّى تَتُوبَ سَوَاءٌ كَانَ زَنَى بِهَا هُوَ أَوْ غَيْرُهُ ، هَذَا هُوَ الصَّوَابُ بِلَا رَيْبٍ وَهُوَ مَذْهَبُ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ السَّلَفِ وَالْخَلَفِ : مِنْهُمْ أَحْمَد بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ وَغَيْرُهُ وَذَهَبَ كَثِيرٌ مِنْ السَّلَفِ وَالْخَلَفِ إلَى جَوَازِهِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الثَّلَاثَةِ ؛ لَكِنْ مَالِكٌ يَشْتَرِطُ الِاسْتِبْرَاءَ وَأَبُو حَنِيفَةَ يُجَوِّزُ الْعَقْدَ قَبْلَ الِاسْتِبْرَاءِ إذَا كَانَتْ حَامِلًا ؛ لَكِنْ إذَا كَانَتْ حَامِلًا لَا يَجُوزُ وَطْؤُهَا حَتَّى تَضَعَ وَالشَّافِعِيُّ يُبِيحُ الْعَقْدَ وَالْوَطْءَ مُطْلَقًا ؛ لِأَنَّ مَاءَ الزَّانِي غَيْرُ مُحْتَرَمٍ وَحُكْمُهُ لَا يَلْحَقُهُ نَسَبُهُ ، هَذَا مَأْخَذُهُ ، وَأَبُو حَنِيفَةَ يُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْحَامِلِ وَغَيْرِ الْحَامِلِ ؛ فَإِنَّ الْحَامِلَ إذَا وَطِئَهَا اسْتَلْحَقَ وَلَدًا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ قَطْعًا ؛ بِخِلَافِ غَيْرِ الْحَامِلِ ، وَمَالِكٌ وَأَحْمَد يَشْتَرِطَانِ " الِاسْتِبْرَاءَ " وَهُوَ الصَّوَابُ ؛ لَكِنْ مَالِكٌ وَأَحْمَد فِي رِوَايَةٍ يَشْتَرِطَانِ الِاسْتِبْرَاءَ بِحَيْضَةِ وَالرِّوَايَةُ الْأُخْرَى عَنْ أَحْمَد هِيَ الَّتِي عَلَيْهَا كَثِيرٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ كَالْقَاضِي أَبِي يَعْلَى وَأَتْبَاعِهِ أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ ثَلَاثِ حِيَضٍ وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ لَا يَجِبُ إلَّا الِاسْتِبْرَاءُ فَقَطْ " انتهى من "مجموع الفتاوى" (32 /110) .

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